Peptide Tools to Study SARS-CoV-2

JPT's Peptide Tools to Study SARS-CoV2

JPT has launched a broad development program to provide access to genome spanning SARS-CoV-2 peptide tools and its different mutation variants for applications such as:

  • SARS-CoV-2 clinical trial immune monitoring
  • SARS-CoV-2 evaluation of cross reactivities
  • SARS-CoV-2 blood and sero test development
  • SARS-CoV-2 T-and B-cell epitope discovery

We have broadened our portfolio of coronavirus related products beyond SARS-CoV-2, including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and common cold viruses CoV 229E, OC43, HKU1 and NL63. Have a look below!

About SARS-CoV-2

SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), the causative agent of Covid-19, is responsible for the current pandemic. Developing and monitoring vaccines, therapies and diagnostic tests that are safe, effective, and rapidly deployable is an urgent global health priority.

Spike Mutations in SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern covered by PepMix™

see Overview Table

Peptide Tools to Study SARS-CoV2

Cellular Immunity
-> PepMix™ Peptide Pools
  • Antigen-specific T-cell stimulation
  • Cellular immune monitoring
  • Vaccine target discovery
  • Blood test development
  • Cross reactivity testing (SARS-CoV-2 vs. SARS, MERS, HCoV 229E, OC43…)
  • Cell therapy development

  • Efficient epitope mapping and identification
  • Matrix Pools and individual peptides spanning a whole antigen in one set
  • Minimal sample amount required
  • Antigen specific T-cell stimulation in T-cell assays (i.e. ELISpot, ICS)
  • Immune monitoring
  • Proliferation assays
  • T-cell expansion
Humoral Immunity
-> PepStar™ Peptide Microarrays
  • Humoral immune monitoring
  • Antibody epitope discovery
  • Cross reactivity testing (SARS-CoV-2 vs. SARS, MERS, HCoV 229E, OC43…)
  • Seromarker discovery

PepStar™ Antigen Collection Pan-Coronavirus
for cross reactivity testing with SARS-CoV-2 vs. SARS, MERS, HCoV 229E, OC43…)
PepStar™ Peptide Microarrays
for individual SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV antigens 
Tailored PepStar™ Peptide Microarrays
You define content and layout, we provide economic and fast production in our regulated clean-room environment. We also offer our assay and analysis service using your samples with your tailored peptide microarray.
  • Thousands of peptides spanning the entire SARS-CoV-2 genome using smallest sample volumes
  • Incubation using smallest sample volumes
  • Study of antibody cross-reactivities between SARS-CoV-2 and other corona viruses
  • Verification of peptide binders with a large numbers of samples
  • Transfer of results to ELISA platform for rapid test development

  • Peptide ELISA development and service using SARS-CoV-2 peptides or a combination with other corona viruses
  • ELISA-based validation service of peptide binders identified by using JPT’s peptide microarray platform
  • Collaborative ELISA test development
Clinical Immune Monitoring & Cell Therapy
-> Clinical Grade Peptides & PepMix™ Peptide Pools
  • High quality chemically synthesized antigen source for vaccine trial monitoring
  • Ancillary reagents for cellular therapy development
  • Full analytical coverage, stability testing, batch documentation and more
-> SpikeMix™ SARS-CoV-2
  • Identify SARS CoV-2 antigens from biological samples
  • Mass spectrometry based assays (MRM)
  • Screen 23 proteotypic peptides from SARS-CoV-2



  • BNT162b2 Vaccine Induces Neutralizing Antibodies and Poly-Specific T Cells in Humans
    Ugur Sahin et al., Nature (2021)
  • Protection Against SARS-CoV-2 Beta Variant in mRNA-1273 Vaccine–Boosted Nonhuman Primates
    Kizzmekia S. Corbett et al., Science, (2021)
  • Children Develop Strong and Sustained Cross-Reactive Immune Responses Against Spike Protein Following SARS-CoV-2 Infection, With Enhanced Recognition of Variants of Concern
    Alexander C. Dowell, medRxiv (2021) 
  • Comorbid illnesses are associated with altered adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2
    Krystle K.Q. Yu, JCI Insight (2021) - PMID: 33621211
  • Targeting SARS-CoV-2 Receptor-Binding Domain to Cells Expressing CD40 Improves Protection to Infection in Convalescent Macaques
    Romain Marlin, Nature Communications (2021)
  • Longitudinal Analysis of Human Memory T-Cell Response according to the Severity of Illness up to 8 Months after SARS-CoV-2 Infection
    Chang Kyung Kang, The Journal of Infectious Diseases (2021) - PMID: 33755725
  • Robust SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity is maintained at 6 months following primary infection
    Jianmin Zuo, Nature (2021) - PMID: 33674800
  • SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Arrested In The Closed State Induces Potent Neutralizing Responses
    George W. Carnell, bioRxiv (2021)
  • First Report Demonstrating The Safety And Immunogenicity Of The SARS-COV-2 BNT162b1 mRNA Vaccine In Younger And Older Chinese Adults: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Observer-Blind Phase I Study
    Fengcai Zhu, Research Square (2021) 
  • Poor Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Humoral and T-cell Responses After 2 Injections of mRNA Vaccine in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Belatacept
    Nathalie Chavator et al., Transplantation, (2021)
  • SARS-CoV-2 Specific Memory T Cell Epitopes Identified in COVID-19-Recovered Subjects
    Juan Zhao et al., Virus Res, (2021)
  • Intrafamilial Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 Associated with Cellular Immune Response without Seroconversion, France
    Floriane Gallais et al., Emerg Infect Dis, (2021)
  • SARS-CoV2 Mutant-Specific T Cells and Neutralizing Antibodies After Vaccination and up to 1 Year After Infection
    Richardson, J.R. et al., ISAR Bioscience, (2021)
  • COVID-19 Subunit Vaccine with a Combination of TLR1/2 and TLR3 Agonists Induces Robust and Protective Immunity
    Soo-Kyung Jeong et al., Vaccines, (2021)
  • Impairment of CD4+ T and Memory B Cell Responses but Normal Memory CD8+T-Cell Activation on Crohn’s Disease after COVID-19 Vaccination: A Twin Case
    Fabiana Gil-Melgaço et al., Viruses, (2021)
  • Weak Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies
    Florent Malard et al., Blood Cancer J, (2021)
  • CD4+ T Cells of Prostate Cancer Patients Have Decreased Immune Responses to Antigens Derived From SARS-CoV-2 Spike
    Pavla Taborska et al., Front Immunol, (2021)
  • T Cell–Mediated Response to SARS-CoV-2 in Liver Transplant Recipients With Prior COVID-19
    Mario Fernández-Ruiz et al., Am J Transplant, (2021)
  • Prospective Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Seroconversion (PASS) Study: an Observational Cohort Study of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Vaccination in Healthcare Workers
    Jackson, B.M. et al., BMC Infect Dis, (2021)
  • Cellular Immunity Predominates Over Humoral Immunity After Homologous and Heterologous mRNA and Vector-Based COVID-19 Vaccine Regimens in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients
    Tina Schmidt et al., Am J Translplant, (2021)
  • The Legacy of Maternal SARS-CoV-2 Infection on the Immunology of the Neonate
    Sarah Gee et al., Nat Immunol, (2021)
  • A Single-Cycle Influenza A Virus-Based SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Elicits Potent Immune Responses in a Mouse Model
    Surapong Koonpaew et al., Vaccines, (2021)
  • Impact of Multiple Sclerosis Disease-Modifying Therapies on SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine-Induced Antibody and T Cell Immunity
    Sabatino, J.J. et al., MedRxiv, (2021)
  • Complete Protection of Nasal and Lung Airways Against SARS-CoV-2 Challenge by Antibody Plus Th1 Dominant N- and S-Specific T-Cell Responses to Subcutaneous Prime and Thermally-Stable Oral Boost Bivalent hAd5 Vaccination in an NHP Study
    Elizabeth Gabitzsch et al., BioRxiv, (2021)
  • The Evaluation of Novel Oral Vaccines Based on Self-Amplifying RNA Lipid Nanparticles (saRNA LNPs), saRNA Transfected Lactobacillus Plantarum LNPs, and saRNA Transfected Lactobacillus Plantarum to Neutralize SARS-CoV-2 Variants Alpha and Delta
    Reza Keikha et al., Sci Rep, (2021)
  • Single-Dose Intranasal Administration of AdCOVID Elicits Systemic and Mucosal Immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and Fully Protects Mice from Lethal Challenge
    King R.G. et al., Vaccines, (2021)
  • T-Cell and Antibody Immunity After COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines in Healthy and Immunocompromised Subjects-An Exploratory Study
    Rakesh Sindhi et al., MedRxiv, (2021)
  • SARS-CoV-2-Specific Antibody and T Cell Response Kinetics According to Symptom Severity
    Ji Yeun Kim et al., Am J Trop Med Hyg, (2021)
  • Implementation of Adenovirus-Mediated Pulmonary Expression of Human ACE2 in HLA Transgenic Mice Enables Establishment of a COVID-19 Murine Model for Assessment of Immune Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Infection
    Theodor Chitlaru et al., Pathogens, (2021)
  • Dynamics of Antibody Response to BNT162b2 Vaccine After Six Months: a Longitudinal Prospective Study
    Naaber, Paul et al., Lancet Reg Health Eur, (2021)
  • Safety and Immunogenicity of an Inactivated Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine Expressing SARS-CoV-2 Spike: Interim Results of a Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 1/2 Trial
    Punnee Pitisuttihum et al., MedRxiv, (2021)
  • Protracted yet Coordinated Differentiation of Long-Lived SARS-CoV-2-Specific CD8+ T Cells During COVID-19 Convalescence
    Tongcui Ma et al., BioRxiv, (2021)
  • SARS-Cov-2 Spike Protein Fragment 674–685 Protects Mitochondria From Releasing Cytochrome c in Response to Apoptogenic Influence
    Olena Kalashnyk et al., Biochem Biophys Res Commun, (2021)
  • CD8+PD-L1+CXCR3+ Polyfunctional T Cell Abundances Are Associated With Survival in Critical SARS-CoV-2–Infected Patients
    Lucille Adam et al., JCI Insight, (2021)
  • Protective Antibodies Elicited by SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Vaccination are Boosted in the Lung After Challenge in Nonhuman Primates
    Joseph R. Francica et al., Sci Transl Med, (2021)
  • Profiling SARS-CoV-2 HLA-I Peptidome Reveals T Cell Epitopes From Out-of-Frame ORFs
    Shira Weingarten-Gabbay et al., Cell, (2021)
  • A Short Corticosteroid Course Reduces Symptoms and Immunological Alterations Underlying Long-COVID
    Alberto Utrero-Rico et al., Biomedicines, (2021)
  • COVID-19 Vaccine mRNA-1273 Elicits a Protective Immune Profile in Mice That is not Associated With Vaccine-Enhanced Disease Upon SARS-CoV-2 Challenge
    DiPiazza, A.T. et al., Immunity, (2021)
  • An Enveloped Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Expressing a Stabilized Prefusion form of the SARS-CoV-2 spike Protein Elicits Highly Potent Immunity
    Anne-Catherine Fluckiger et al., Vaccine, (2021)
  • Intranasal Plus Subcutaneous Prime Vaccination With a Dual Antigen COVID-19 Vaccine Elicits T-Cell and Antibody Responses in Mice
    Adrian Rice et al., Sci Rep, (2021)
  • Change in Symptoms and Immune Response in People with Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-Cov-2 Infection (PASC) After SARS-Cov-2 Vaccination
    Daisy Massay et al., MedRxiv, (2021)
  • Evolution of SARS-CoV-2 Immune Responses in Nursing Home Residents Following Full Dose of the Comirnaty® COVID-19 Vaccine
    Giménez, E. et al., J Infect (2021)
  • Correlates of Neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern by Early Pandemic Sera
    Vidal, S-J. et al., J Virol, (2021)
  • Preserved T-cell Response in anti-CD20 Treated Multiple Sclerosis Patients Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination
    Simon Faissner et al., Res Square, (2021)
  • Durable T cell responses contrast with faster antibody waning in BNT162b2-vaccinated elderly at 6 month
    Laurent Renia et al., Res Square, (2021)
  • SARS-CoV-2 ferritin nanoparticle vaccine induces robust innate immune activity driving polyfunctional spike-specific T cell responses
    Joshua M. Carmen et al., Vaccines, (2021)
  • A SARS-CoV-2 ferritin nanoparticle vaccine elicits protective immune responses in nonhuman primates
    M. Gordon Joyce et al., Science Translational Medicine
  • SARS-CoV-2-Specific Cell-Mediated Immunity in Kidney Transplant Recipients Recovered From COVID-19
    Mario Fernández-Ruiz et al., Transplantation, (2021)
  • SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination in Rituximab-Treated Patients: B Cells Promote Humoral Immune Responses in the Presence of T-Cell-Mediated Immunity
    Daniel Mrak et al., Ann Rheum Dis, (2021)
  • Comorbid Illnesses are Associated With Altered Adaptive Immune Responses to SARS-CoV-2
    Krystle Kq Yu et al., JCI Insight, (2021)
  • Longitudinal Analysis of Human Memory T-Cell Response According to the Severity of Illness up to 8 Months After Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection
    Chang Kyung Kang et al., J Infect Dis, (2021)
  • Deconvoluting the T Cell Response to SARS-CoV-2: Specificity Versus Chance and Cognate Cross-Reactivity
    Alexander A. Lehmann et al., Front Immunology, (2021)
  • Identification of Conserved SARS-CoV-2 Spike Epitopes That Expand Public cTfh Clonotypes in Mild COVID-19 Patients
    Xiuyuan Lu et al., J Exp Med, (2021)
  • Effectiveness of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-2 Infection During the Delta (B.1.617.2) Variant Surge in India: a Test-Negative, Case-Control Study and a Mechanistic Study of Post-Vaccination Immune Responses
    Ramachandran Thiruvengadam et al., Lancet Infect Dis, (2021)
  • Acute Exercise Increases Immune Responses to SARS CoV-2 in a Previously Infected Man
    Baker, F. L. et al., Brain Behav Immun Health (2021)
  • Generation of Glucocorticoid-Resistant SARS-CoV-2 T Cells for Adoptive Cell Therapy
    Basar et al, Cell Reports (2021)
  • Peptide microarray based analysis of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 identifies unique epitopes with potential for diagnostic test development
    Holenya et a al, Eur J Immunol (2021)
  • Immunogenicity of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine and SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Lung Transplant Recipients
    Havlin et al, Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation (2021)
  • COVID-19 Vaccine Candidates Based on Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Induce Robust T- and B-Cell Immune Responses and Full Efficacy in Mice
    García-Arriaza et al, Journal of Virology (2021)
  • Vaccination with SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein and AS03 Adjuvant Induces Rapid Anamnestic Antibodies in the Lung and Protects Against Virus Challenge in Nonhuman Primates
    Francica et al, bioRxiv (2021)
  • Impaired Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Humoral and Cellular Immune Response Induced by Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine in Solid Organ Transplanted Patients
    Miele et al, American Journal of Transplantation (2021)
  • Therapeutic Antibodies, Targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Spike N-Terminal Domain, Protect Lethally Infected K18-hACE2 Mice
    Noy-Porat et al, iScience (2021)
  • CD8+ T Cells Specific for an Immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Epitope Cross-React With Selective Seasonal Coronaviruses
    Lineburg et al, Immunity (2021)
  • Prime hAd5 Spike plus Nucleocapsid Vaccination Induces Ten-Fold Increases in Mean T-Cell Responses in Phase 1 Subjects that are Sustained Against Spike Variants
    Sieling et al, medRxiv (2021)
  • SARS-CoV-2 Mutations in MHC-I-Restricted Epitopes Evade CD8+ T Cell Responses
    Agerer et al, Science Immunology (2021)
  • Preclinical Evaluation of a SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine PTX-COVID19-B
    Liu et al, bioRxiv (2021)
  • A Lymph Node-Targeted Amphiphile Vaccine Induces Potent Cellular and Humoral Immunity to SARS-CoV-2
    Steinbuck et al, Sci Adv. (2021)
  • Neutralizing Monoclonal Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies Isolated from Immunized Rabbits Define Novel Vulnerable Spike-Protein Epitope
    Makdasi et al, Viruses (2021)
  • SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Vaccine Candidate NVX-CoV2373 Immunogenicity in Baboons and Protection in Mice
    Tian et al, Nat Commun. (2021)
  • Safety and Immunogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b1 mRNA Vaccine in Younger and Older Chinese Adults: a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Phase 1 Study 
    Li et al, Nat Med. (2021)
  • BNT162b Vaccines Protect Rhesus Macaques From SARS-CoV-2 
    Vogel et al, Nature. (2021)
  • Older Adults Lack SARS CoV-2 Cross-Reactive T Lymphocytes Directed to Human Coronaviruses OC43 and NL63
    Saletti et al, Sci Rep. (2021)
  • SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern Partially Escape Humoral but not T-Cell Responses in COVID-19 Convalescent Donors and Vaccinees
    Geers et al, Sci Immunol. (2021)
  • Cross-Reactive CD4+ T Cells Enhance SARS-CoV-2 Immune Responses Upon Infection and Vaccination
    Loyal et al, Science (2021)
  • COVID-19 Immune Signatures Reveal Stable Antiviral T Cell Function Despite Declining Humoral Responses 
    Bonifacius et al, Nat Commun. (2021)
  • IL-33 Expression in Response to SARS-CoV-2 Correlates With Seropositivity in COVID-19 Convalescent Individuals 
    Stanczak et al, Nat Commun. (2021)
  • A Highly Specific Assay for the Detection of SARS-CoV-2-Reactive CD4 + and CD8 + T Cells in COVID-19 Patients 
    Zelba et al, J Immunol. (2021)
  • SARS-CoV-2-Reactive T Cells in Healthy Donors and Patients With COVID-19
    Braun et al, Nature (2021)
  • Functional Characterization of CD4+ T Cell Receptors Crossreactive for SARS-CoV-2 and Endemic Coronaviruses
    Dykema et al, J Clin Invest. (2021)
  • A Single-Dose Live-Attenuated YF17D-Vectored SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Candidate
    Sanchez-Felipe et al, Nature (2021)
  • SARS-CoV-2 Protein Subunit Vaccination of Mice and Rhesus Macaques Elicits Potent and Durable Neutralizing Antibody Responses
    Mandolesi et al,  Cell Reports Medicine (2021)
  • SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine BNT162b2 Elicited a Robust Humoral and Cellular Response Against SARSCoV-2 Variants
    Lilleri et al, Research Square (2021)
  • SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Stabilized in The Closed State Induces Potent Neutralizing Responses
    Carnell et al, J Virol (2021)
  • Robust SARS-CoV-2-specific T Cell Immunity is maintained at 6 Months Following Primary Infection
    Zuo et al, Nature (2021)
  • First Report Demonstrating the Safety and Immunogenicity of the SARS-COV-2 BNT162b1 mRNA Vaccine in Younger and Older Chinese Adults: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Observer-Blind Phase I Study
    Zhu et al, Research Square (2021)
  • 1IL-2 and IFN-γ are Biomarkers of SARS-CoV-2 Specific Cellular Response in Whole Blood Stimulation Assays
    Pérez-Cabezas et al, medRxiv (2020)
  • Adaptive Immune Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Recovered Severe COVID-19 Patients
    Olea et al, medRxiv (2020)
  • Persistent Cellular Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 Infection
    Breton et al, bioRxiv (2020)
  • Deconvoluting the T cell response to SARS-CoV-2: specificity versus chance- and cognate cross-reactivity
    Lehmann et al, bioRxiv (2020)
  • BNT162b2 Induces SARS-CoV-2-Neutralising Antibodies and T cells in Humans
    Sahin et al, medRxiv (2020)
  • Convalescent Plasma Therapy for B-Cell Depleted Patients With Protracted COVID-19 Disease
    Hueso et al, Blood (2020)
  • Divergent SARS‐CoV‐2‐Specific T and B Cell Responses in Severe but Not Mild COVID‐19 Patients
    Oja et al, European Journal of Immunology (2020)
  • mRNA based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate CVnCoV induces high levels of virus neutralizing antibodies and mediates protection in rodents
    Rauch et al, bioRxiv (2020)
  • T Cell and Antibody Responses to SARS-CoV-2: Experience From a French Transplantation and Hemodialysis Center During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Candon et al, Am J Transplant (2020)
  • Intrafamilial Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 Induces Cellular Immune Response without Seroconversion
    Gallais et al, Emerg Infect Dis (2020)
  • A Glimpse Into the Diverse Cellular Immunity Against SARS-CoV-2
    Chang et al, Research Square (2020)
  • Immunogenicity of novel mRNA COVID-19 vaccine MRT5500 in mice and 2 non-human primates
    Kalnin et al, bioRxiv (2020)
  • Safety and Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 vaccine in Older Adults
    Anderson et al, NEJM (2020)
  • Divergent SARS-CoV-2-specific T and B cell Responses in Severe but Not Mild COVID-19
    Oja et al, bioRxiv (2020)
  • Evaluation of the mRNA-1273 Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in Nonhuman Primates
    Corbett et al, New England J of Med (2020)
  • Presence of SARS-CoV-2 reactive T cells in COVID-19 Patients and Healthy Donors
    Braun et al, Nature (2020)
  • Single-shot Ad26 Vaccine Protects Against SARS-CoV-2 in Rhesus Macaques
    Mercado et al, Nature (2020)
  • SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine Development Enabled by Prototype Pathogen Preparedness
    Corbett et al, bioRxiv (2020)
  • Data, Reagents, Assays and Merits of Proteomics for SARS-CoV-2 Research and Testing
    Zecha et al, Mol Cell Proteomics (2020)
  • A Longitudinal Study of Immune Cells in Severe COVID-19 Patients
    Payen et al, medRXiv (2020)
  • SARS-CoV-2-Specific T cells Exhibit Unique Features Characterized by Robust Helper Function, Lack of Terminal Differentiation, and High Proliferative Potential
    Neidleman et al, bioRxiv (2020)
  • Generation of SARS-CoV-2 S1 Spike Glycoprotein Putative Antigenic Epitopes in vitro by Intracellular Aminopeptidases
    Stamatakis et al bioRxiv (2020)
  • Self-Amplifying RNA SARS-CoV-2 Lipid Nanoparticle Vaccine Candidate Induces High Neutralizing Antibody Titers in Mice
    McKay et al, Nature (2020)
  • An mRNA Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-2 — Preliminary Report
    Jackson et al, New England J of Med (2020)
  • SARS‐CoV‐2‐Reactive Interferon‐γ‐producing CD8+ T cells in Patients Hospitalized with Coronavirus Disease 2019
    Giminez et al, J Med Vir (2020)
  • Concurrent Human Antibody and TH1 type T-cell Responses 2 Elicited by a COVID-19 RNA Vaccine
    Sahin et al, medRXiv (2020)

Further references
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