Peptide Tools for HIV Research

About Human Immunodeficiency Virus

There are currently two types of Human immunodeficiency virus: HIV-1 and HIV-2, with the former being more infectious and virulent, currently responsible for the majority of global infections. 
HIV is part of the genus lentiviridae and family of retroviridae, with its categorization being attributed to its morphology and infection mechanism, respectively. Upon entering the infected cell the single stranded positive RNA virus makes use of reserve transcriptase to eventually insert its genetic material into the hosts’ DNA. The virus’ RNA, its associated nucleocapsid proteins, and reverse transcriptase are enveloped by a capsid structure and then by a spherical lipid membrane including env-glyco- (gp41 + gp120), and matrix proteins. Other landmark structural fusion proteins include POL and GAG, which assemble for optimal virion recruitment and spherical particle formation, and regulatory proteins such as NEF, which is required for virus replication and evading the host’s defense via downregulation of surface molecules. Tracking these specific proteins in immunity assays allows for accurate separation of viral replication stages. 
HIV infection distinguishes between its latent/dormant and replicating stage, allowing for a long term evasion from the immune system, and – if left untreated – to acute acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The virus is either sexually transmitted through blood, semen, or vaginal fluids, or is transmitted non-sexually through the womb or breast milk, in the form of infected leukocytes or as a free virus. 
According to the WHO, 1.5 million were newly infected with the virus in 2021, with 650.000 dying of AIDS in the same year, with an estimated 70% of HIV-positive people located in sub-Saharan African Countries.

HIV in Research

Since its discovery in 1981 the urgent need for treatment options, vaccinations, and preventative measures has led to many research milestones, especially in the latter department regarding pre-and post-exposure prophylaxis practices. No more does exposure to the virus necessarily mean an inevitable infection and a consequential death sentence, depending on accessibility to the treatment. However, the challenge of HIV evading the immune system’s detection remains.

JPT's HIV Peptide Formats

Cellular Immune Response

PepMix Peptide Pools
  • Antigen specific stimulation of T cells
  • Immune monitoring of high-risk patients
  • Qualification of immunodominant antigens
  • Validating clinical T cell assays

  • PepMix HIV-1 Ultra Pools: specialist peptide pools reflecting sequence variety through either Envelope (ENV) protein, GAG poly protein, POL polyprotein, or NEF proteins
  • Custom PepMix Peptide Pools tailored to your specific needs

ENV, GAG, NEF and POL peptide pools were designed with focus on high coverage. A proprietary algorithm was used to obtain peptide combinations providing an optimal coverage of sequence variability.

As an alternative to PepMix Pools we also offer single antigen peptides and MHC multimers to profile antigen-specific immune responses for HIV.

  • T cell assays in high-throughput T cell epitope discovery
  • Monitoring of cellular immune response
  • Clinical Trials

We are the experts for peptide synthesis with highest quality optimized for many applications. Our peptide synthesis service has a very high success rate (over 99%) as we optimize the appropriate peptide synthesis method for each peptide. If you would like to order a quality peptide synthesis using regulated processes, choose JPT!

Humoral Immune Response

PepStar Peptide Microarrays 
JPT’s HIV Ultra microarray displays overlapping peptide scans through HIV gag p17 and p24, tat, nef, env and the remaining immunogenic regions of the HIV proteome (6564 15mer peptides). It covers sequences from the most frequent clades (A, B, C, D, G, CRF1, CRF2) of HIV 1. We also offer our assay and analysis service using your samples with this high-content HIV peptide microarray.

Our tailored Peptide ELISA plates are offered as stand alone service for mapping of epitopes and definition of protein interaction sites or as validation assay to confirm results obtained with JPT’s peptide microarrays.

Clinical Peptides

Clinical Peptides
JPT’s Clinical Peptides product lines Clinical Grade and ISO Plus are produced in production environments that are regulated by an enhanced ISO 9001:2015 quality management system for the stringent product requirements of immunotherapy as well as vaccine and drug development. Depending on the specifics of the immunotherapy concept to be applied, the resulting products have been shown to be applicable in clinical applications.



  • Cognate Antigen Engagement induces HIV-1 Expression in CD4+ T cells from people in long-term Art
    Moskovljevic et al., BioRxiv (2024) 
    Product used: PepMix 
    HIV-1 (GAG) Ultra
  • Impaired T and "memory-like" NK-cell reconstitution is linked to late-onset HCMV reactivation after letermovir cessation
    Lauruschkat et al., Blood Advances (2024) - PMID: 38315873
    Products used: PepMix™ HCMVA (pp65), PepMix™ 
    HIV-1 (NEF) Ultra
  • Integrating Machine Learning-Enhanced Immunopeptidomics and SARS-CoV-2 PopulationScale Analyses Unveils Novel Antigenic Features for Next-Generation COVID-19 Vaccines
    Caron et al., Research Square (2024) 
    Product used: PepMix™ HIV-1 
    (POL) Ultra 
  • Vaccines targeting ESR1 activating mutations elicit anti-tumor immune responses and suppress estrogen signaling in therapy resistant ER+ breast cancer
    Dailey et al., Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (2024) - PMID: 38330990
    Products used: Custom PepMix (ESR1), PepMix™ 
    HIV-1 (GAG) Ultra
  • Viral vector delivered immunogen focuses HIV-1 antibody specificity and increases durability of the circulating antibody recall response
    Williams et al., PLOS Pathogens (2023) - PMID: 37256916
    Products used: custom PepStar & PepStar 
    HIV-1 env (gp120 protein + signal peptide)
  • Ablative radiation alone in stage I lung cancer produces an adaptive systemic immune response: insights from a prospective study
    Voong et al., Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer (2023)
    Products used: CEFX Ultra SuperStim Pool MHC-II Subset & PepMix™ HIV-1 (GAG) Ultra
  • A cell-free antigen processing system informs HIV-1 epitope selection and vaccine design
    Sengupta et al., Journal of Experimental Medicine (2023) - PMID: 37058141
    Products used: PepMix HIV-1 (NEF) UltraHIV-1 (Con B gag motif)
  • Lymph node dendritic cells harbor inducible replication-competent HIV despite years of suppressive ART
    Banga et al., Cell Host & Microbe (2023) - PMID: 37751747
  • Potent anti-viral activity of a trispecific HIV neutralizing antibody in SHIV-infected monkeys
    Amarendra Pegu et al., Cell Report (2022) - PMID: 34986348
    Products used: PepMix HIV ENV Ultra
  • UltraNatural Immunity against HIV-1: Progression of Understanding after Association Studies
    Ma Luo, Viruses (2022)
    Product used: PepMix HIV-1 GAG Ultra
  • Administration of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies at ART initiation maintains long-term CD8+ T cell immunity
    Rosás-Umbert et al., Nature Communications (2022
    Products used: PepMix HIV-1 (GAG) UltraHIV-1 (ENV) UltraHIV-1 (NEF) UltraHIV-1 (POL) Ultra 
  • Early intervention with 3BNC117 and romidepsin at antiretroviral treatment initiation in people with HIV-1: a phase 1b/2a, randomized trial
    Gunst et al., Nature Medicine (2022)
    Product used: PepMix HIV Gag Ultra
  • Broadly binding and functional antibodies and persisting memory B cells elicited by HIV vaccine PDPHV
    Wang et al., Vaccines (2022)
    Products used: PepStar™ HIV-1 env
  • Differential localization and limited cytotoxic potential of duodenal CD8+ T cells
    Mvaya et al., JCI Insight (2022) - PMID: 35132966
    Products used: PepMix™ HIV-1 (POL), HIV-1 (GAG) & HIV-1 (NEF) 
  • Combination of ultrasound-based mechanical disruption of tumor with immune checkpoint blockade modifies tumor microenvironment and augments systemic antitumor immunity
    Shinya Abe et al., Immunotherapy of Cancer (2022)
    Products used: PepMix™ HIV-1 (GAG) Ultra
  • Potent anti-viral activity of a trispecific HIV neutralizing antibody in SHIV-infected monkeys
    Amarendra Pegu et al., Cell Report (2022) - PMID: 34986348
    Products used: PepMix™ HIV-1 (ENV) Ultra
  • Lipid Nanoparticle Encapsulated Nucleoside-Modified mRNA Vaccines Elicit Polyfunctional HIV-1 Antibodies Comparable to Proteins in Nonhuman Primates
    Kevin O. Saunders et al., BioRxiv, (2021)
  • Lipid Nanoparticle Encapsulated Nucleoside-Modified mRNA Vaccines Elicit Polyfunctional HIV-1 Antibodies Comparable to Proteins in Nonhuman Primates
    Samuel L. Vidal et al., Nature, (2021)
  • HIV-Specific T Cell Responses Reflect Substantive in Vivo Interactions With Antigen Despite Long-Term Therapy
    Eva. M Stevenson et al., JCI Insight (2021)
  • Comparison of Shortened Mosaic HIV-1 Vaccine Schedules: a Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase 1 Trial (IPCAVD010/HPX1002) And a Preclinical Study in Rhesus Monkeys (NHP 17–22)
    Kathryn E. Stephenson et al., The Lancet HIV (2020) - PMID: 32078815
  • Evaluation of HIV-1 Neutralizing and Binding Antibodies in Maternal-Infant Transmission in Thailand
    Lindsay Wieczorek et al., Virology (2020) - PMID: n.a.
  • Antigen Responsive CD4+T Cell Clones Contribute to the HIV-1 Latent Reservoir
    Pilar Mendoza et al., bioRxiv (2020) - PMID: n.a.
  • Enhancement of Immune Responses by Guanosine-Based Particles in DNA Plasmid Formulations against Infectious Diseases
    Santos et al, Journal of Immunology Research (2019)
  • T-Cell Responses Targeting HIV Nef Uniquely Correlate With Infected Cell Frequencies After Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy
    Thomas et al, PLoS Pathogen(2019)
  • Envelope-Specific Epitope Recognition Patterns of HIV Vaccine-Induced IgG Antibodies are Linked to Immunogen Structure and Sequence
    Nadai et al, Front. Immunol (2019)
  • Neutralizing Antibody Responses following Long-Term Vaccination with HIV-1 Env gp140 in Guinea Pigs
    Bricault et al, Journal of Virology (2018)
  • Cytomegalovirus-specific T-cells Are Associated with Immune Senescence, But Not With Systemic Inflammation, in People Living with HIV
    Ballegaard et al, Sci Rep. (2018)
  • Differential Expression of CD8+ T Cell Cytotoxic Effector Molecules in Blood and Gastrointestinal Mucosa in HIV-1 Infection
    Kiniry et al, The Journal of Immunology (2018)


“The RV 144 HIV trial is considered as one of the first successful HIV vaccine trials. It has become clear that the V2 loop of gp120 is an important site for immunogenicity and protection from HIV infection. The use of JPT’s PepStar™ microarray technology has been very useful for the correlation of the clincial outcome with humoral immune responses. As have the cyclic peptides been from JPT to validate these findings!”
J. Currier, PhD., Walter Reed Army Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA

Application Notes

Check our list of products, click and go.

Get a quote