Please refer to the corresponding frequently asked questions (FAQs) below.
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Why should my peptide or hapten be cross-linked to a carrier protein?
Molecules of small molecular weights such as peptides and haptens are insufficient immunogens when injected alone.
These types of molecules should always be conjugated to a carrier protein when used for antibody production.
How do I select a carrier molecule for my peptide?
The carrier molecule you select depend on the species under examination.
KLH is routinely used for vertebrate research because there are no homologous vertebrate proteins resulting in little if any non-specific antibody activity.
For invertebrate studies, it is best to use a carrier such as BSA or ovalbumin.
Why is my conjugated peptide solution cloudy?
Depending on the structure and solubility of the carrier used, peptide conjugates have often limited solubility in water.
However, this does not affect its immunogenicity and cloudy solutions can be used directly for immunizations.
How will my conjugated peptide be shipped?
Conjugates will be shipped as chilled solutions since it has been shown that both frozen solutions and freeze dried materials show sub-optimal immunization after reconstitution.