Synthesis and in Vitro/in Vivo Evaluation of Novel Mono- and Trivalent Technetium-99m Labeled Ghrelin Peptide Complexes as Potential Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals

Kozminski et al., Nucl Med Biol. (2014) - PMID: 25218025

Product(s) used in this publication:  Specialty Peptides



Ghrelin is an endogenous hormone present in blood. It is released from the oxyntic cells (X/A-like cells) of the stomach and fundus and can exist in two forms: as an acylated and des-acylated ghrelin. Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHS-R). Overexpression of GHS-R1a receptor was identified in cells of different types of tumors (e.g. pituitary adenoma, neuroendocrine tumors of the thyroid, lung, breast, gonads, prostate, stomach, colorectal, endocrine and non-endocrine pancreatic tumors). This fact suggests that gamma radionuclide labeled ghrelin peptide may be considered as a potential diagnostic radiopharmaceutical.


Ghrelin peptide labeled with mono- and trivalent technetium-99m complexes, (99m)Tc-Lys-GHR, has been prepared on the n.c.a. scale. The physicochemical (stability, charge, shape, lipophilicity) and biological (receptor affinity, biodistribution) properties of the conjugates have been studied relevant to use the conjugates as receptor-based diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals.


The obtained conjugates [(99m)Tc(CO)3LN,O(CN-Lys-GHR)](+), (99m)Tc(CO)3LS,O(CN-Lys-GHR) and (99m)Tc(NS3)(CN-Lys-GHR) show different shape, charge, lipophilicity and two of them, (99m)Tc(CO)3LS,O(CN-Lys-GHR) and (99m)Tc(NS3)(CN-Lys-GHR), high stability in neutral aqueous solutions, even in the presence of excess concentration of histidine/cysteine competitive standard ligands or human serum. The in vitro binding affinity of (99m)Tc-Lys-GHR conjugates with respect to growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a) present on DU-145 cells was in the range of IC50 from 45 to 54 nM. The conjugate (99m)Tc(CO)3LS,O(CN-Lys-GHR) exhibited excretion route by the liver and kidney in comparable degree, while the more lipophilic conjugate (99m)Tc(NS3)(CN-Lys-GHR)-mainly by the liver.


Basing on the results concerning physicochemical and biochemical properties, the conjugates (99m)Tc(CO)3LS,O(CN-Lys-GHR) and (99m)Tc(NS3)(CN-Lys-GHR) might be considered to be promising models for diagnostic radiopharmaceutical.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Biodistribution; Cell line; DU-145; Ghrelin; Radiolabeling; Technetium-99m

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