Product(s) used in this publication: Computational Chemistry: Molecular Design and Lead Optimization
Human Pin1, a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase with high specificity to -Ser/Thr(PO(3)H(2))-Pro- motifs, is required for cell cycle progression. In an effort to design reversible Pin1 inhibitors by using a substrate structure based approach, a panel of peptides were applied to systematically analyze the minimal structural requirements for Pin1 substrate recognition. Pin1 catalysis (k(cat)/K(m) < 5 mM(-1) s(-1)) for Ala-Pro, Ser-Pro, and Ser(PO(3)H(2))-Pro was detected using direct UV-visible spectrophotometric detection of prolyl isomerization, while weak competitive inhibition of Pin1 by these dipeptides was observed (K(i) > 1 mM). Substrates with chain lengths extending from either the P2 to P1' or the P1 to P2' subsite gave k(cat)/K(m) values of 100 mM(-1) s(-1) for Ala-Ser(PO(3)H(2))-Pro and 38 mM(-1) s(-1) for Ser(PO(3)H(2))-Pro-Arg. For both Pin1 and its yeast homologue Ess1, the optimal subsite recognition elements comprise five amino acid residues with the essential Ser(PO(3)H(2)) in the middle position. The resulting substrate Ac-Ala-Ala-Ser(PO(3)H(2))-Pro-Arg-NH-4-nitroanilide possesses a very low cis/trans interconversion barrier in the presence of either Pin1 or Ess1, with k(cat)/K(m) = 9300 mM(-1) s(-1) and 12000 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively. The D-Ser(PO(3)H(2)) residue preceding proline could serve as a substrate-deactivating determinant without compromising ground state affinity. Similarly, substitution of the amide bond preceding proline with a thioxo amide bond produces a potent inhibitor. Pin1 is reversibly inhibited by such substrate analogue inhibitors with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range. The D-amino acid containing inhibitor also exhibits remarkable stability against phosphatase activity in cell lysate.