Product(s) used in this publication: Phosphorylation Site Detectors
Endogenous mono-ADP-ribosylation in eukaryotes is involved in regulating protein synthesis, signal transduction, cytoskeletal integrity, and cell proliferation, although few cellular ADP-ribosyltransferases have been identified. The sirtuins constitute a highly conserved family of protein deacetylases, and several family members have also been reported to perform protein ADP-ribosylation. We characterized the ADP-ribosylation reaction of the nuclear sirtuin homolog Trypanosoma brucei SIR2-related protein 1 (TbSIR2RP1) on both acetylated and unacetylated substrates. We demonstrated that an acetylated substrate is not required for ADP-ribosylation to occur, indicating that the reaction performed by TbSIR2RP1 is a genuine enzymatic reaction and not a side reaction of deacetylation. Biochemical and MS data showed that arginine is the major ADP-ribose acceptor for unacetylated substrates, whereas arginine does not appear to be the major ADP-ribose acceptor in reactions with acetylated histone H1.1. We performed combined ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulations, which indicated that sirtuin ADP-ribosylation at arginine is energetically feasible, and involves a concerted mechanism with a highly dissociative transition state. In comparison with the corresponding nicotinamide cleavage in the deacetylation reaction, the simulations suggest that sirtuin ADP-ribosylation would be several orders slower but less sensitive to nicotinamide inhibition, which is consistent with experimental results. These results suggest that TbSIR2RP1 can perform ADP-ribosylation using two distinct mechanisms, depending on whether or not the substrate is acetylated.