Product(s) used in this publication: PepStar™ Peptide Microarrays
The allergenicity of the caseins (CN), one of the major allergens in cow milk, is well characterized and their immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding epitopes have been identified. However, investigations about the allergenic potential of the genetic variants occurring in the caseins are lacking. Therefore, this study determined the influence of the genetic polymorphism on IgE binding to epitopes of bovine casein variants. Furthermore, differences in IgE binding between epitopes of goats and water buffaloes were analyzed. A set of 187 peptides, covering the previously identified sequential IgE-binding epitopes of αS1-, αS2-, β-, and κ-CN variants from cows and the corresponding homologous peptides of water buffaloes and goats, were synthesized and tested by means of peptide microarray for IgE binding, using sera from 16 cow milk-sensitized individuals. Seven of the 16 sera samples showed positive signals on microarrays and were included in this study. In 5 αS1-CN variants (A, B, C, E, and I), the AA substitution or deletion affected the immunoreactivity of epitopes AA 4 to 23, AA 17 to 36, AA 83 to 102, AA 173 to 192, and AA 175 to 194, as well as of the variant-specific peptides AA 184 to 196, AA 187 to 199, AA 174 to 193, and AA 179 to 198, which were found to resist gastrointestinal digestion. Variation in IgE binding was further detected for peptides AA 103 to 123 and AA 108 to 129 of 3 β-CN variants (A(1), A(2), and B). The majority of sera showed IgE binding to αS1-CN peptides of cows and the homologous counterpart of goats and water buffaloes. However, αS1- and β-CN epitopes from goats and water buffaloes had lower immunoreactivity than those of cows, but, in some cases, higher or exclusive IgE binding was observed. The results of this study indicate that genetic variants of the caseins differ in their allergenicity. This might be useful in the search for a suitable protein source for cow milk-allergic patients. In addition, milk from water buffaloes and goats harbor an allergenic potential due to cross-reactivity of IgE antibodies with cow milk caseins and are, therefore, not an acceptable alternative in the nutrition of cow milk-allergic patients.
Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
casein variant; immunoglobulin E epitope; milk allergy; peptide microarray