Product(s) used in this publication: Reference Peptides for Targeted Proteomics - SpikeTides™ & SpikeMix™
Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) is an abundant peptidase in the brain and periphery, but its physiological functions are still largely unknown. Recent findings point to a role for PREP in inflammatory processes. This study assessed the cellular and extracellular PREP activities in cultures of mouse primary cortical neurons, microglial cells and astrocytes, and immortalized microglial BV-2 cells under neuroinflammatory conditions induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFNγ). Furthermore, we evaluated the neuroprotective effect of a specific PREP inhibitor, KYP-2047, in a neuroinflammation model based on a coculture of primary cortical neurons and activated BV-2 cells. The inflammatory insult reduced intracellular and increased extracellular PREP activity specifically in microglial cells, suggesting that activated microglia excretes active PREP. A targeted proteomics approach revealed up-regulation in PREP protein levels in BV-2 cell growth medium but down-regulation in crude membrane-bound PREP after LPS+IFNγ. In the coculture of BV-2 cells and primary neurons, an increase in extracellular PREP activity was also detected after inflammation. KYP-2047 (10 μmol/L) significantly protected neurons against microglial toxicity and reduced the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha. In conclusion, these data point to an extracellular role for microglial PREP in the inflammatory process. Inhibition of PREP during neuroinflammation is a potential target for neuroprotection. Thus, PREP inhibitors may offer a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders with an inflammatory component including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases.