Product(s) used in this publication: PepSpots™ Peptides on Cellulose
Modern proteomic techniques have identified hundreds of proteins that bind 14-3-3s, the most widespread eukaryotic phosphoserine/threonine sensors, but accurate prediction of the target phospho-sites is difficult. Here we describe a systematic approach using synthetic peptides that tests large numbers of potential binding sites in parallel for human 14-3-3. By profiling the sequence requirements for three diverse 14-3-3 binding sites (from IRS-1, IRSp53 and GIT2), we have generated enhanced bioinformatics tools to score sites and allow more tractable testing by co-immunoprecipitation. This approach has allowed us to identify two additional sites other than Ser216 in the widely studied cell division cycle (Cdc) protein 25C, whose function depends on 14-3-3 binding. These Ser247 and Ser263 sites in human Cdc25C, which were not predicted by the existing Scansite search, are conserved across species and flank the nuclear localization region. Furthermore, we found strong interactions between 14-3-3 and peptides with the sequence Rxx[S/T]xR typical for PKC sites, and which is as abundant as the canonical Rxx[S/T]xP motif in the proteome. Two such sites are required for 14-3-3 binding in the polarity protein Numb. A recent survey of >200 reported sites identified only a handful containing this motif, suggesting that it is currently under-appreciated as a candidate binding site. This approach allows one to rapidly map 14-3-3 binding sites and has revealed alternate motifs.