Product(s) used in this publication: Absolutely Quantified Peptides SpikeTides™ TQL
Archaeosomes are liposomes composed of natural or synthetic archaeal lipids that can be used as adjuvants to induce strong long-lasting humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against entrapped antigen. However, the entrapment efficiency of antigen within archaeosomes constituted using standard liposome forming methodology is often only 5-40%. In this study, we evaluated different formulation methods using a simple semi-synthetic archaeal lipid (SLA, sulfated lactosyl archaeol) and two different antigens, ovalbumin (OVA) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Antigen was entrapped within archaeosomes using the conventional thin film hydration-rehydration method with or without removal of non-entrapped antigen, or pre-formed empty archaeosomes were simply admixed with an antigen solution. Physicochemical characteristics were determined (size distribution, zeta potential, vesicle morphology and lamellarity), as well as location of antigen relative to bilayer using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We demonstrate that antigen (OVA or HBsAg) formulated with SLA lipid adjuvants using all the different methodologies resulted in a strong antigen-specific immune response. Nevertheless, the advantage of using a drug substance process that comprises of simply admixing antigen with pre-formed empty archaeosomes, represents a simple, efficient and antigenic dose-sparing formulation for adjuvanting and delivering vaccine antigens.