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A novel allogeneic off-the-shelf dendritic cell vaccine for post-remission treatment of elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia

Loosdrecht et al., Cancer Immunol Immunother. (2018) - PMID: 30039426

Product(s) used in this publication: PepMix™ Peptide Pools

Abstract

In elderly acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients post-remission treatment options are associated with high comorbidity rates and poor survival. Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is a promising alternative treatment strategy. A novel allogeneic DC vaccine, DCP-001, was developed from an AML-derived cell line that uniquely combines the positive features of allogeneic DC vaccines and expression of multi-leukemia-associated antigens. Here, we present data from a phase I study conducted with DCP-001 in 12 advanced-stage elderly AML patients. Patients enrolled were in complete remission (CR1/CR2) (n = 5) or had smoldering disease (n = 7). All patients were at high risk of relapse and ineligible for post-remission intensification therapies. A standard 3 + 3 dose escalation design with extension to six patients in the highest dose was performed. Patients received four biweekly intradermal DCP-001 injections at different dose levels (10, 25, and 50 million cells DCP-001) and were monitored for clinical and immunological responses. Primary objectives of the study (feasibility and safety) were achieved with 10/12 patients completing the vaccination program. Treatment was well tolerated. A clear-cut distinction between patients with and without detectable circulating leukemic blasts during the vaccination period was noted. Patients with no circulating blasts showed an unusually prolonged survival [median overall survival 36 months (range 7-63) from the start of vaccination] whereas patients with circulating blasts, died within 6 months. Long-term survival was correlated with maintained T cell levels and induction of multi-functional immune responses. It is concluded that DCP-001 in elderly AML patients is safe, feasible and generates both cellular and humoral immune responses.

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